Exploring the Art of Calligraphy: Understanding Various Writing Styles
Calligraphy, particularly Islamic calligraphy, holds a significant place in the realm of art. Known as "hat" in Turkish, this art form has been a vital part of Islamic and Turkish culture for centuries. It's considered an abstract art form by Westerners and has produced numerous masterpieces over the years.
Origin of Calligraphy
Calligraphy emerged during the early periods of Islam. Initially, a simple and straightforward script called "Ma'kili" was used. However, with the establishment of the city of Kufa during the caliphate of Hazrat Umar, a new calligraphy school was born. The script that originated from this school was initially called Kufa script, which later evolved into Kufic script. This script is considered the "mother of scripts" as it served as the foundation for various other scripts.
Different Styles of Calligraphy
Kufic script emerged after the Ma'kili script and was widely popular during the early years of Islam. It was primarily used for writing the Quran. Kufic script is a geometric script composed of straight lines and corners.
Muhakkak is a variant of Sülüs script with longer and wider horizontal parts. It was widely used until the 16th century.
Tevki is a script that resembles Sülüs in some ways and Talik in others. It's a highly dynamic script that started appearing during the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmet.
Rikaa is a simplified, round, and flexible version of Nesih script. It's often used for writing certificates, hence it's also known as the "certificate script".
Rika is a practical script derived from Rikaa. It's easy and quick to write, making it suitable for daily use.
Talik is a script where every letter is rounded. It's the complete opposite of the Ma'kili script, which is composed entirely of straight lines.
Celi script is a larger and thicker version of Sülüs and Talik scripts. It's often used for large plaques and inscriptions in mosques.
Gubari script is a very fine and small script. Its name comes from the Arabic word "gubar," which means dust.
Divani script is a highly dynamic script that resembles Tevki and Talik scripts. It was primarily used for writing imperial edicts.
Siyakat is a special type of script used for land and property records and financial documents. It's unique to the Turks and was designed to be difficult to read to prevent unauthorized access to records.
The art of calligraphy has seen significant development, particularly during the Ottoman period. It has produced numerous masters and masterpieces, contributing to the rich cultural heritage of the Islamic world. The beauty of calligraphy lies in its diversity, with each script offering a unique aesthetic and historical significance.